Category: Philosophy

Sigmund Freud – Dream Psychology

In what we may term “prescientific days” people were in no uncertainty about the interpretation of dreams. When they were recalled after awakening they were regarded as either the friendly or hostile manifestation of some higher powers, demoniacal and Divine. With the rise of scientific thought the whole of this expressive mythology was transferred to […]

Plato – Timaeus

Persons of the dialogue: Socrates; Critias; Timaeus; Hermocrates Socrates. One, two, three; but where, my dear Timaeus, is the fourth of those who were yesterday my guests and are to be my entertainers to-day? Timaeus. He has been taken ill, Socrates; for he would not willingly have been absent from this gathering. Soc. Then, if […]

Plato – Theaetetus

Persons of the dialogue: Socrates; Theodorus; Theaetetus Scene: Euclid and Terpsion meet in front of Euclid’s house in Megara; they enter the house, and the dialogue is read to them by a servant. Euclid. Have you only just arrived from the country, Terpsion? Terpsion. No, I came some time ago: and I have been in […]

Plato – The Complete Plato

How you, O Athenians, have been affected by my accusers, I cannot tell; but I know that they almost made me forget who I was—so persuasively did they speak; and yet they have hardly uttered a word of truth. But of the many falsehoods told by them, there was one which quite amazed me;—I mean […]

Plato – Symposium

Of all the works of Plato the Symposium is the most perfect in form, and may be truly thought to contain more than any commentator has ever dreamed of; or, as Goethe said of one of his own writings, more than the author himself knew. For in philosophy as in prophecy glimpses of the future […]

Plato – Statesman

In the Phaedrus, the Republic, the Philebus, the Parmenides, and the Sophist, we may observe the tendency of Plato to combine two or more subjects or different aspects of the same subject in a single dialogue. In the Sophist and Statesman especially we note that the discussion is partly regarded as an illustration of method, […]

Plato – Protagoras

The Protagoras, like several of the Dialogues of Plato, is put into the mouth of Socrates, who describes a conversation which had taken place between himself and the great Sophist at the house of Callias—’the man who had spent more upon the Sophists than all the rest of the world’—and in which the learned Hippias […]

Plato – Phaedo

Persons of the dialogue: Phaedo, who is the narrator of the dialogue to Echecrates of Phlius Socrates Apollodorus Simmias Cebes Crito Attendant of the prison Scene: The Prison of Socrates Place of the narration: Phlius Echecrates. Were you yourself, Phaedo, in the prison with Socrates on the day when he drank the poison? Phaedo. Yes, […]

Plato – Parmenides

The awe with which Plato regarded the character of ‘the great’ Parmenides has extended to the dialogue which he calls by his name. None of the writings of Plato have been more copiously illustrated, both in ancient and modern times, and in none of them have the interpreters been more at variance with one another. […]

Plato – Meno

Persons of the dialogue: Meno; Socrates; A slave of Meno; Anytus Meno. Can you tell me, Socrates, whether virtue is acquired by teaching or by practice; or if neither by teaching nor practice, then whether it comes to man by nature, or in what other way? Socrates. O Meno, there was a time when the […]

Plato – Laches

PERSONS OF THE DIALOGUE: LYSIMACHUS, son of Aristides; MELESIAS, son of Thucydides; THEIR SONS; NICIAS; LACHES; SOCRATES. Lysimachus. You have seen the exhibition of the man fighting in armour, Nicias and Laches, but we did not tell you at the time the reason why my friend Melesias and I asked you to go with us […]

Plato – Ion

PERSONS OF THE DIALOGUE: Socrates, Ion. Socrates: Welcome, Ion. Are you from your native city of Ephesus? Ion: No, Socrates; but from Epidaurus, where I attended the festival of Asclepius. Soc.: And do the Epidaurians have contests of rhapsodes at the festival? Ion: O yes; and of all sorts of musical performers. Soc.: And were […]

Plato – Gorgias

Persons of the dialogue: Callicles; Socrates; Chaerephon; Gorgias; Polus Scene: The house of Callicles. Callicles. The wise man, as the proverb says, is late for a fray, but not for a feast. Socrates. And are we late for a feast? Callicles Yes, and a delightful feast; for Gorgias has just been exhibiting to us many […]

Plato – Euthyphro

Persons of the dialogue: Socrates; Euthyphro; Scene: The Porch of the King Archon Euthyphro. Why have you left the Lyceum, Socrates? and what are you doing in the Porch of the King Archon? Surely you cannot be concerned in a suit before the King, like myself? Socrates. Not in a suit, Euthyphro; impeachment is the […]

Plato – Euthydemus

The Euthydemus, though apt to be regarded by us only as an elaborate jest, has also a very serious purpose. It may fairly claim to be the oldest treatise on logic; for that science originates in the misunderstandings which necessarily accompany the first efforts of speculation. Several of the fallacies which are satirized in it […]

Plato – Crito

Persons of the Dialogue: Socrates; Crito Scene:The Prison of Socrates. Socrates. Why have you come at this hour, Crito? It must be quite early. Crito. Yes, certainly. Soc. What is the exact time? Cr. The dawn is breaking. Soc. I wonder the keeper of the prison would let you in. Cr. He knows me because […]

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